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Joukhadar N, Lalonde D, et al.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open. Date of publication 2021 Aug 4;volume 9(8):e3730.
1. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2021 Aug 4;9(8):e3730. doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003730. eCollection 2021 Aug. How to Minimize the Pain of Local Anesthetic Injection for Wide Awake Surgery. Joukhadar N(1), Lalonde D(2). Author information: (1)theDivision of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. (2)Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. After reading this article, the participant should be able to (1) almost painlessly inject tumescent local anesthesia to anesthetize small or large parts of the body, (2) improve surgical safety by eliminating the need for unnecessary sedation in patients with multiple medical comorbidities, and (3) convert many limb and face operations to wide awake surgery. We recommend the following 13 tips to minimize the pain of local anesthesia injection: (1) buffer local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate; (2) use smaller 27- or 30-gauge needles; (3) immobilize the syringe with two hands and have your thumb ready on the plunger before inserting the needle; (4) use more than one type of sensory noise when inserting needles into the skin; (5) try to insert the needle at 90 degrees; (6) do not inject in the dermis, but in the fat just below it; (7) inject at least 2 ml slowly just under the dermis before moving the needle at all and inject all local anesthetic slowly when you start to advance the needle; (8) never advance sharp needle tips anywhere that is not yet numb; (9) always inject from proximal to distal relative to nerves; (10) use blunt-tipped cannulas when tumescing large areas; (11) only reinsert needles into skin that is already numb when injecting large areas; (12) always ask patients to tell you every time they feel pain during the whole injection process so that you can score yourself and improve with each injection; (13) always inject too much volume instead of not enough volume to eliminate surgery pain and the need for "top ups." Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of The American Society of Plastic Surgeons. DOI: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003730 PMCID: PMC8337068 PMID: 34367856
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How to Administer Local Anesthesia for Wound Care Procedures