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Mahdavian Delavary B, van der Veer WM, van Egmond M, Niessen FB, Beelen RH, et al.
Immunobiology. Date of publication 2011 Jul 1;volume 216(7):753-62.
1. Immunobiology. 2011 Jul;216(7):753-62. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2011.01.001. Epub 2011 Jan 8. Macrophages in skin injury and repair. Mahdavian Delavary B(1), van der Veer WM, van Egmond M, Niessen FB, Beelen RH. Author information: (1)Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. b.mahdavian@vumc.nl After recruitment to the wound bed, monocytes differentiate into macrophages. Macrophages play a central role in all stages of wound healing and orchestrate the wound healing process. Their functional phenotype is dependent on the wound microenvironment, which changes during healing, hereby altering macrophage phenotype. During the early and short inflammatory phase macrophages exert pro-inflammatory functions like antigen-presenting, phagocytosis and the production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors that facilitate the wound healing process. As such, the phenotype of wound macrophages in this phase is probably the classically activated or the so-called M1 phenotype. During the proliferative phase, macrophages stimulate proliferation of connective, endothelial and epithelial tissue directly and indirectly. Especially fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial cells are stimulated by macrophages during this phase to induce and complete ECM formation, reepithelialization and neovascularization. Subsequently, macrophages can change the composition of the ECM both during angiogenesis and in the remodelling phase by release of degrading enzymes and by synthesizing ECM molecules. This suggests an important role for alternatively activated macrophages in this phase of wound healing. Pathological functioning of macrophages in the wound healing process can result in derailed wound healing, like the formation of ulcers, chronic wounds, hypertrophic scars and keloids. However, the exact role of macrophages in these processes is still incompletely understood. For treating wound repair disorders more should be elucidated on the role of macrophages in these conditions, especially their functional phenotype, to find more therapeutic opportunities. This review summarizes macrophage function in skin injury repair, thereby providing more insight in macrophage function in wound healing and possible interventions in this process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1016/j.imbio.2011.01.001 PMID: 21281986 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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The Skin