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Scheiner J, Farid K, Raden M, Demisse S, et al.
Ostomy/wound management. Date of publication 2017 Mar 1;volume 63(3):36-46.
1. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2017 Mar;63(3):36-46. Ultrasound to Detect Pressure-related Deep Tissue Injuries in Adults Admitted via the Emergency Department: A Prospective, Descriptive, Pilot Study. Scheiner J(1), Farid K, Raden M(2), Demisse S(3). Author information: (1)Department of Radiology and Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY. (2)Neuro-radiology, Staten Island University Hospital. (3)Biostatistics Unit, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Staten Island University Hospital-North, Staten Island, NY. Stage 4 pressure ulcers (PUs) start with tissue death at the level of the bone, also known as deep tissue injury (DTI). Studies have shown the appearance of DTI on the skin is delayed for several days after the original pressure-related injury to the deep soft tissues. Studies also suggest DTI can be seen using ultrasound (US) technology. A prospective, descriptive, correlational pilot study was conducted to evaluate the use of US technology to detect DTI in the soft tissues that are not visible on the skin upon hospital admission. Study participants included a convenience sample of 33 persons at risk for PUs (ie, Braden score <18) admitted through the emergency department. Each participant had US scans of 13 common PU body sites. All scans were documented in the radiologist report in the electronic medical record. Creatinine phosphokinase, calcium levels, and urine myoglobin levels also were assessed upon enrollment. Skin failure risk factors (SFRFs), including fever, hypotension, weight loss, coagulopathy, and acidosis/respiratory failure, also were documented. Patients were examined for skin PUs every day for 7 days after US scan. Twenty-three (23) patients completed the study. US scans identified pressure necrosis at 2 levels: bone (54 positive [US+]) and subcutaneous (SC); 79 US+, respectively). US+ bone sites resulted in 5 PUs appearing 6 to 7 days post-admission (sensitivity = 100%, specificity 84.7%, positive predictive value 10%, and negative predictive value 100%), indicating all DTI that later became purple skin DTI were detected by the US. US+ SC sites, located immediately under the skin, yielded 5 PUs appearing on day 2 after admission (sensitivity 100%, specificity 74.8%, positive predictive value 6.3%, and negative predictive value 100%). The participants with PU occurrence in both bone and SC groups had low Braden scores (bone group mean = 13.25, SC group mean = 11.2). Study patients who were positive for PU also had >4 SFRFs. Creatinine phosphokinase, calcium, and myoglobin levels were inconsistent and did not correlate with US+ scans. These observations warrant larger studies to confirm findings and optimize the validity of US screening for DTI in select populations, which may help improve protocols of care and PU admission documentation. The preliminary results suggest inclusion of the Braden Scale score and known PU risk factors may improve the positive predictive value of this test. PMID: 28355138 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Appears in following Topics:
Pressure Ulcers/Injuries - Introduction and Assessment